Graduate students need to make substantial progress planning their thesis during the first year of their program. A thesis proposal combined with a draft coursework program is often reviewed by the SAC in a student's second semester - and always before data collection begins. When embarking on developing a thesis proposal, be sure to meet periodically with your advisor to consider your ideas.
Be sure to set realistic goals, develop an appropriate time line or schedule, and read other examples of completed theses especially those that were published in academic or professional journals. The University of Minnesota library owns a copy of every thesis and dissertation completed here- so there is no shortage of available examples! Be sure your thesis research is focused, is organized around a set of questions, and uses appropriate methods.
Even those who were proclaimed through many reports of the different international organisations to have taken part in the KP the communities in the KPA did not know what the activities and objectives of the project were. The few who knew could not really connect these to their daily lives. That is why this research is important in comparing theory and reality on the ground, based on quantitative and qualitative data that were collected in the area. Furthermore, as earlier stated the study hopes to contribute in the field of study by identifying the conditions under which CBRMPs in Cameroon example of KNP are implemented, contributing in the better understanding of the characteristics and prerequisites of the success or failure of CBC Management projects.
Although with reservations and limitations, this would enhance the possibilities in successful project implementation or highlight reasons for failures. It explores and describes the nature of the KP during and after its lifespan. Though it tries to highlight the different activities of the project with the birth of forest resource management devolution after the proclaimed Community Forestry law enactment in Cameroon, it stops short of representing the overall picture of community involvement in conservation projects in Cameroon although results could be similar elsewhere in Cameroon.
It is also in part, a follow-up of a previous research carried out in the year by Dr. Due to the benchmarks of this thesis, it did not focus on establishing the quantitative significance on the relationships between variables but rather descriptive statistics in the analysis of data like frequencies and percentages. This does not mean it is not possible to establish this relationship from data collected. Different variables and indicators, through questionnaires and interviews are used to analyse the perception of rural people and other stakeholders.
Part of the research methods follows the basis of an empirical-analysis approach whereby theory-based description and explanation of empirical evidence will be checked. Although the study is confined to a specific project location, the southern part of the park and its buffer zones, which may not be enough to arrive at a generalization that may be applicable to any other locations, it is worthwhile noting that the impact of the results has a broader scope and implication.
Despite these limitations, the study provides an in-depth information and valuable insights about the importance of the local community in reaching the goals CBC and rural development in Cameroon. This chapter ends with a structural and background highlight of how the study is going to be analyzed. The geopolitical representation of Cameroon and the historical background of the project area will be reviewed in chapter 2.
The theoretical framework chapter 3 will be delineated, by first illustrating two of the different theoretical concepts of biodiversity conservations as per se, highlighting the involvement of the local communities and other stakeholders and later, a background of the three hypotheses.
Also in this chapter, analytical models are going to be presented through a conceptual framework and background assumptions, so as to get a better understanding in using the research questions to build up the different variables, portraying the relationship link between them. Chapter 4 reviews the literature, relating the study objectives, questions and hypotheses, also citing important works related to CBC in the KNP, making it easier to understand the theoretical and practical methods used in the study.
Chapter 5 then gives a brief theoretical and detailed practical methodology of how the empirical field study was carried out, describing the sample methods and population and also the instruments used to carry out the study and data collection and how the results were arrived at. This is followed by chapter 6, dealing with the results presentation and analysis of the data collected through the questionnaires. Finally, chapter 7 deals with the discussion, conclusions and recommendations of the study.
Cameroon, which acts as a bridge between West and Central Africa is situated in the geographical coordinates of 6 00 N, 12 00 E. With an area almost one and a half times bigger than Germany Area total: , km2 — comparative: Germany: total area , km2; www. The country situated on the Gulf of Guinea, is shaped like an elongated triangle, and is with a rich forest and a relatively well-developed flora and fauna system.
It is usually described as Africa in miniature because its diversity in ecosystems and climatic conditions are comparable with many African regions. In the south is a coastal plain, a region of dense equatorial rain forests; the Adamawa Plateau in the center, a region with elevations reaching about 1, m about 4, ft above sea level.
This is a transitional area where forest gives way in the north to savanna regions. In the far north the savanna gradually slopes into the marshland surrounding Lake Chad and in the west is an area of high, forested mountains of volcanic origin.
It also has a relatively well developed system of forest and faunal reserves, most of which were established in the colonial era during the s and s Ruth Malleson, Almost a third of its territory is covered by tropical moist forests. Among African countries, Cameroon ranks second only to the Democratic Republic of Congo DRC in diversity of forest-dwelling primates, and among the top five in diversity of plant species.
Cameroon is home to the only remaining population of black rhinoceroses in west central Africa. The humid forests of the littoral zone and the mountains of south-western Province rank among the world's top areas for endemic bird species and exhibit high endemism for amphibians, reptiles and plants. The lowland forests of south-eastern Cameroon, although altered by accelerated harvesting practices over the past two decades, support some of the most concentrated and diverse populations of large mammals elephants, forest ungulates, great apes recorded in west or central Africa World Bank, There are also well known protected areas and National Parks.
In doing so, the GoC seek to gain experience with locally integrated resource management with regard to community participation in protected area management, to help expand grass-root participation in formulation of the NEMP. This would strengthen the scientific rigor and quality of the biodiversity conservation strategy to be developed within the framework of the NEMP. The then Ministry of Environment and Forestry MINEF , now Ministry of Forestry and Wildlife, is the lead governmental agency that ensures coordination of programmes or projects concerning wildlife or biodiversity in particular.
In addition to its other responsibilities, it is mandated in coordination with the Ministry of Environment to supervise nature conservation activities and is the governmental agency responsible for the organisation of protected areas and management of the country's natural heritage. This humid tropical forest which is found in the Congo basin is believed by scientists to be one of the oldest of their kind in Africa and to have more than species of trees, plants, animals and insects.
Based on the research of Stephen Gartlan and Phil Agland, first conservation activities were carried out in the early eighties by the Earthlife Foundation and the GoC Schmidt-Soltau, 6. The KNP is the only lowland tropical rainforest national park the southern part of which is almost certainly primary in Cameroon, with most of the other national parks found in the more accessible savannas in the north of the Country. The park covers an area of , ha km2 , with a human population of about 50, people living in villages, 5 of them in the park still waiting to be resettled and 27 very close to the park, a 3 km support zone which was before a much wider peripheral zone surrounding the park.
Because of the park management, the Korup Project was established to facilitate the smooth functioning and also to achieve the goals of the Park, which were to preserve the biodiversity and development of the Korup region. Found in Ndian Division, the headquarters of the park is situated in Mundemba, which in itself is a subdivision. This was the beginning of the KP, which lasted until the end of and about which this thesis is going to be based on.
This is structured in the form of a background theoretical concept of the study CBC , followed by the hypotheses. The hypotheses are limited to Community-Based Conservation from which two synonyms will be analysed.
Furthermore, this chapter also deals with a conceptual framework to analyse the relationships between the communities and other stakeholders. The rationale behind all these is to define the variables that are vital for the study. Because conservation in the past decades has become a global issue, one has realised the importance of the indigenous and local populations and the roles they play in the maintenance and preservation of the endless depletion of our biodiversity.
They tend to be voluntary, people-centred and participatory, with community members making management decisions Murphree, , cited in Forgie, V.
Expertise may be provided by outside agencies but management responsibility remains with the community group. For conservation purposes a community can be defined as a number of people who have a goal and decide to work together to do something about it. While groups can contain mutual, overlapping and divergent interests and perspectives, the goal binds people together, giving them a common identity despite individual differences.
The rationale behind CBCIs is that, by working together, people are able to achieve more than individuals or organisations working on their own, and involving those affected is likely to result in a better and more acceptable long-term solution Forgie, V. They reverse top-down, centre-driven conservation by focusing on the people who bear the costs of conservation. These are: information, consultation, deciding together, acting together and supporting independent community initiatives. These points are furthermore explained by the statements of Forgie, V.
Citizens are actively involved in suggesting options and sharing decision-making with other stakeholder groups. Power is decentralised, and community groups make decisions that affect their immediate environment. Community initiatives can be placed along a continuum from highly specialised activities that require the dedicated skills of specialists, to activities requiring no specific skills, just the willingness of individual members of the public to coordinate and be involved in projects.
The table below taken from Forgie, V. All of which were created by the conservation organizations, rather than the indigenous and local people Chapin, Firstly introduced by the WWF in the mids, they have characteristic of biodiversity conservation objectives using socio-economic investment tools.
ICDPs are more often than not seen as CBC projects but their approaches have common features that are more distinct from other CBC projects as highlighted below by Hughes and Flintan : - Biodiversity conservation is the primary goal; - There is a recognised need to address the social and economic requirements of communities who might otherwise threaten biodiversity, and the natural resource base in general; - The core objective is to improve relationships between state-managed protected areas and their neighbours; - ICDPs do not necessarily seek to devolve control or ownership of protected area resources to local communities nor address this issue on the periphery of the parks; - ICDPs usually receive funding from external sources, i.
There are also some assumptions that go in hand with the concept of ICDPs. Hypothesis 1 The involvement of the local community is important for the success of Biodiversity Conservation. To confirm or reject this hypothesis, the level of involvement of the local communities in planning and implementation of conservation policies in the KNP through the KP will be analysed.
Tail colouration and disease susceptibility in the greenfinch. Feeding strategies to promote welfare and conservation of captive endangered primates. Occupancy and detectability of Hapalemur alaotrensis. Recommendations for monitoring.
Distribution and Conservation of Montserrat's Endemic Flora. Who ate all the crocodiles? An investigation of trends and patterns in trade and consumption of bushmeat in Gabon. Habitat suitability modelling for the Alaotran gentle lemur Hapalemur alaotrensis. Determinants of Reptile Reintroduction Success. The Abundance and Distribution of reptiles on a small tropical island: Implications for the conservation of reptile communities.
They tend to be voluntary, people-centred and participatory, with community members making management decisions Murphree, , cited in Forgie, V. Habitat suitability modelling for the Alaotran gentle lemur Hapalemur alaotrensis. The concept, as defined here, applies to the landscape scale as opposed to genetic or species-level conservation , and includes the different human groups as well as the natural species that inhabit the ecosystem Schmink
Grimble et al. The then Ministry of Environment and Forestry MINEF , now Ministry of Forestry and Wildlife, is the lead governmental agency that ensures coordination of programmes or projects concerning wildlife or biodiversity in particular. From the results, it is concluded and recommended that though the Government of Cameroon GoC has enacted many policies of authority devolution in the forestry and wildlife sector to include the local communities in biodiversity conservation projects, much still has to be done to practically implement these policies. Since its inception in , the KNP has seen many changes in policy implementation, from state control, through support of environmental NGOs with Integrated Conservation and Development Projects ICDPs , sustainable and participatory natural resource management, with local community involvement. The format of the thesis proposal will vary, depending on the nature of the topic but, in general, it should not be longer than two typewritten pages plus a bibliography and will include the following information: a summary of the state of the question in the existing literature; the significance and nature of the proposed contribution or interpretation; and the sources to be consulted With the agreement of the supervisor, the thesis proposal should then be submitted in electronic form to the Graduate Coordinator, who will present it to the Art History Graduate Committee for approval.
Traditional conservation methods through the indigenous ways of living, working and sacred protected grounds in Africa, and especially in Cameroon has made it possible that today, centuries after slavery and colonisation, there are still biodiversity conservation hotspots to be found here. The effect of violent animal rights campaigns. The interests of these groups are manifested through participation by their representation at the various discussion seminars, workshops and meetings on biodiversity conservation.
Cameroon, which acts as a bridge between West and Central Africa is situated in the geographical coordinates of 6 00 N, 12 00 E. A study of the role of politics in the conservation of whales. This is followed by chapter 6, dealing with the results presentation and analysis of the data collected through the questionnaires. In the far north the savanna gradually slopes into the marshland surrounding Lake Chad and in the west is an area of high, forested mountains of volcanic origin. Such publication is welcomed as the best demonstration of quality in a student's research. Table 17 Quantitative: Which method and how effective is it?
Do our political concerns regarding Japan outweigh the need to conserve the whale?
It is usually described as Africa in miniature because its diversity in ecosystems and climatic conditions are comparable with many African regions. This again can be illustrated in green.
Since the onset of the idea of a national park in Korup, the creation of the KNP itself and the Korup Project KP, the main interest of the study that followed, much research and surveys have been carried out to review the formulation, planning and implementation of policies in the Korup Project Area KPA, which is the KNP and its support zone. There are also well known protected areas and National Parks. Not emphasising much on the contemporary thoughts, the aim here is to investigate the importance of local knowledge and traditional conservation methods to successfully implement a sustainable CBC conservation project with international NGOs and groups as stakeholders.
These are: information, consultation, deciding together, acting together and supporting independent community initiatives. The park covers an area of , ha km2 , with a human population of about 50, people living in villages, 5 of them in the park still waiting to be resettled and 27 very close to the park, a 3 km support zone which was before a much wider peripheral zone surrounding the park. This was the beginning of the KP, which lasted until the end of and about which this thesis is going to be based on. The third hypothesis will be used to analyse the local knowledge in biodiversity conservation and the methods used by the project in carrying out conservation and development.