There is always a risk attached to employing an outsider who may only be a success 'on paper'. External recruitment External recruitment makes it possible to draw upon a wider range of talent, and provides the opportunity to bring new experience and ideas in to the business. Disadvantages are that it is more costly and the company may end up with someone who proves to be less effective in practice than they did on paper and in the interview situation.
Recruitment approaches There are a variety of recruitment approaches and most organizations will utilized a combination of two or more of these as part of a recruitment exercise or to deliver their overall recruitment strategy. In the smallest organizations recruitment may be left to individual managers.
More frequently whilst managing the overall recruitment exercise and the decision-making at the final stages of the selection process external service providers may undertake the more specialized aspects of the recruitment process. Services may support permanent, temporary, or casual worker recruitment.
They may be generic agencies that deal with providing unskilled workers through to highly-skilled managerial or technical staff or so-called niche agencies that specialize in a particular industrial sector or professional group.
These firms operate across a range of models such as contingency or retained approaches and also hybrid models where advertising is also used to ensure a flow of candidates alongside relying on networking as their main source of candidates.
Internet recruitment services including recruitment websites and job search engines used to gather as many candidates as possible by advertising a position over a wide geographic area.
It is a procedure of matching organizational requirements with the skills and qualifications of people. Effective selection can be done only when there is effective matching. By selecting best candidate for the required job, the organization will get quality performance of employees. Moreover, organization will face less of absenteeism and employee turnover problems. By selecting right candidate for the required job, organization will also save time and money. Proper screening of candidates takes place during selection procedure.
All the potential candidates who apply for the given job are tested. But selection must be differentiated from recruitment, though these are two phases of employment process. Recruitment is considered to be a positive process as it motivates more of candidates to apply for the job. It creates a pool of applicants. It is just sourcing of data. While selection is a negative process as the inappropriate candidates are rejected here. Recruitment precedes selection in staffing process.
Student achievement is highly likely to be effected by a leaders performance. The review of related literature in this work reveals similarities in historical and traditional processes concerning effective hiring. The historical perspective presented in this work allows one to understand the moral dilemma that created a need for educational programs. This work is guided by three theories: objective theory of job choice, subjective theory of job choice, and work itself theory of job choice.
Embedded in this literature, these theories remind hiring administrators and Human Resource leaders why people chose certain positions. In addition, the researcher presents current models used for recruiting and selection of leaders. The need for effective leaders is overflowing. The researcher considers issues in education such as hiring minorities and women and current issues faced by students and administrators. The goal of both Human Resources HR and the school district is to hire candidates who will effectively flourish as the leader.
In a school setting, educators and administrative staff can both be leaders. For these reasons, the researcher chose to make this research relevant to the recruitment and selection of both groups. The review of related literature discusses hiring from a historical perspective and current practices, the importance of hiring, and need for recruiting and selecting effective leaders in our schools.
This is an incredible feat that requires structure and a strong sense of commitment. Collins work could help describe this process as Getting the right people on the bus, the wrong people off the bus, and the right people off the bus, and the right people in the right seats , p.
Historical Perspective: Function of Human Resources in Schools The gap between educations promise and its achievement is a concern for both citizens and educators. When the causes of the discrepancies between educational ideals and actualities are examined, the personnel factor appears to be contributory Castetter, , p. During thes the face and demand of education continued to evolve. Socially, the world began to change as well as the purpose of education. Prior to this period, Americas culture values transformed.
According to Spindler as cited in Castetter, , people moved from Puritan morals, of self-renunciation to becoming more outgoing and involved in the lives of others. Events in life became less focused on individualism to concern for others.
Moral codes and what the group thought were right became important. Group conformity and collectivity emerged as a way to bring synchronization. These cultural changes led to an increase in the order of education. During the s, education encountered many problems including should the school attempt to open closed areas of culture economics, race and minority-group relations, social class, sex, courtship, marriage religion and morality, nationalism and patriotism for study; can the recruitment and selection process be designed to identify value patterns of personnel which will have negative impact on children and youth Castetter, , p.
Castetter believed, The extent to which these and other educational issues of equal significance can be solved satisfactorily depends on the availability of personnel capable of rendering a high level of educational services Castetter, p. Guiding Theories Three theories guide this review of literature. The objective theory of job choice, created by Behling, Labovitz, and Gainer in proclaims that individuals are motivated to apply for a job based on the economic opportunities.
The subjective theory of job choice explains how applicants have psychological needs the position could fulfill. The work itself theory of job choice shows us how applicants place importance on the job tasks, expectations, and other factors Young, Figure one depicts these theories in a conceptual way.
Recruitment Brochures, Magazines, and Print Media This involves the use of graduate recruitment literature such as GET Directories, and Prospects of the UK because these brochures are direct targets for most graduates.
Organizational recruitment brochures are also availed to participants during graduate recruitment fairs. Other forms that are still increasingly used by prospective employers and companies include advertisement in local dailies and newspaper whereby job adverts are placed on the adverts and targets potential applicants due to the increased velocity of their circulation and area of coverage.
Advertisements Although it can be related to the above-mentioned forms of job recruitment methods and techniques, advertisements form an ideal method that is increasingly utilized by employers to market their job vacancies and openings. Adverts are often placed on local newspapers, and online platforms. Majority of adverts are found on job websites because job seekers frequently visit such websites. Job Databases This involves maintaining a job filling system or job database for prospective employers using resumes and CVs that have been collected over extended periods.
Once a job opening avails itself within the organization, the people responsible for recruiting services visit the database and select potential employees from the available list. Employment Agencies Recruiting agencies specialize in the provision of job recruitment initiatives whereby they screen job applicants are subjected to tests relative to the positions they have applied for, based on their skills and qualifications.
The costs of utilizing services from the recruiting agency might be high but they offer the best services in terms of selecting the ideal candidates for particular positions Roberts, The long-term rewards are often advantageous to the hiring organization.
Internal Recruiting This recruitment method is one of the most essential strategies of filling up available vacancies because the current employees within an organization can be suited to fill up positions that have opened up within their organizations. This employee matching strategy reduces the costs associated with other traditional hiring methods. Hiring employees from within enables a company to obtain increased value in terms of employee relation benefits.
Equally noteworthy is the idea that hired employees from within often demand lower compensation as compared to hiring employees from external sectors. Lastly, internal recruiting enables companies to decrease their expenditure turnovers through the provision of advancement opportunities for existing employees. Career and Recruitment Fairs Career and recruitment fairs are often ideal places for promoting entry-level jobs for fresh graduates and as well, for those individuals, who are willing to change their jobs.
Responsible organs within many universities in conjunction with respective companies organize majority of recruitment and career fairs. Such places are also ideal for enabling potential employers to collect CVs and resumes to be used in future vacancies. Commonly used mechanisms and tools include face-to-face interviews, internet, agencies, and tests, among others.
Face-to-face Interviews This is the most commonly used recruitment strategy among many employers in the graduate recruitment and selection process within the UK. Job applicants are required to appear before a panel of interviewers whereby general assessment is undertaken. During specific interview sessions, the interviews are technically focused on the examination of particular details regarding the position, job description, and personality traits.
Follow-up questions are often directed to applicants to probe deeply into more details about the applicant including his special skills, points of difference, and qualifications. Recruitment Agencies Recruitment agencies are gaining increased popularity within the UK job industry particularly in the search of graduates and executive talent. This mechanism is one of the most expensive mediums irrespective of whether an organization uses the retainer or the contingency firm. Recruiting agencies specialize in the provision of job recruitment initiatives whereby they screen job applicants and subject them to tests relative to the positions they have applied based on their skills and qualifications.
Recruitment agencies are experienced in matching the qualifications of candidates faster than the speed with which other organizations are capable of achieving Roberts, Most recruiting agencies have job databases with details of thousands of applicants in addition to having a wider access to potential employees.
Similarly, they have greater access to the criteria needed by the hiring companies. Online Application The internet is one of the fastest and cheapest mechanisms of recruiting workers when compared to other traditional methods of recruiting workers. Organizations wishing to recruit workers often post their jobs to internet sites for a modest period where they remain available hours a day.
Potential job applicants will be able to view the detailed information about the job opening and position being advertised and send their responses through electronic means.
Organizations will be able to screen the applications by assessing the experience of applicants, their skills, and qualifications, and matching them with the skills required in that particular job. Due to advancements in technology, online screening processes and systems are capable of performing automatic filtering of applications send to the receiving mail. This mechanism often enables the organization to filter large volumes of job applications sent to the company.
Psychometric Testing This hiring mechanism is often conducted by qualified staff and involves subjecting applicants a wide range of tests. To that purpose, psychometric testing covers varied abilities of applicants include personality profiling, ability testing, and aptitude testing.
Such tests often involve two levels-A and B Sackett, and Lievens, The first level involves aptitude testing and ability testing whereas the second level B involves personality profiling.
Aptitude tests and ability tests covers a wide range of aspects that include mechanical abilities, numerical ability, verbal ability, general intelligence, sensory. This strategy often allows feedback to be offered to participants. Personality profiling involves testing particular behaviors of applicants by subjecting them to things that might affect their suitability for some posts Sackett, and Lievens, Presentations and group exercises Presentations involve giving applicants a particular topic and asking them to deliver a presentation on that topic within a given period.
On the other hand, group exercises encompass the division of applicants into particular groups and selecting a role-play or discussion from where every member of the group will be expected to contribute. At the end of the exercise, the group should be in a position of coming up with a meaningful project to enable them to acquire marks. Interests of employers The interests of employers during the graduate recruitment and selection process vary from employer to employer, and depend on the type vacancy.
Within these factors are varied aspects such as skills, qualifications, knowledge, experience, organizational capabilities, team spirit, and resilience, among others.
To this purpose, graduates should prepare extensively when called for interviews by being committed to the needs and requirements of the recruitment and selection process. Any misunderstanding should be communicated in advance. According to survey findings from Mohamed , p.
Good transferable skills was more preferred to having excellent academic grades.Similarly, they have greater access to the criteria needed technological reviews and increased use of the and. These firms operate across a range of models such as recruitment or retained approaches and also hybrid models ppt edexcel igcse english language coursework examples. Considerable savings can be made. In a selection setting, educators and administrative staff can both be literatures.
According to Young , The main purpose of employee selection is to fill vacant positions in a public school district p. Much of this research has, however, concentrated on different aspects within the recruitment and selection process in different organizations across the work. Alternatively parts of all of the process might be undertaken by either public sector employment agencies, or commercial recruitment agencies, or specialist search consultancies. An applicants motive must not be ignored during the selection process Young, Each participant has a faculty mentor and gains hands-on-experience in a job-embedded fashion. They are measurable performance that differentiates successful manager from the others.
Keenan postulates that the recruitment and selection process in the UK follows a sequential process referred to as the resourcing cycle.
Disadvantages are that it is more costly and the company may end up with someone who proves to be less effective in practice than they did on paper and in the interview situation. Online Application The internet is one of the fastest and cheapest mechanisms of recruiting workers when compared to other traditional methods of recruiting workers.