The effects set in very quickly, typically within a few seconds and disappear within a few minutes. Amyl nitrite may also intensify the experience of synesthesia. Amyl nitrite is employed medically to treat heart diseases as well as angina. Amyl nitrite is sometimes used as an antidote for cyanide poisoning. In the late s Time and the Wall Street Journal reported that popper use among homosexual men began as a way to enhance sexual pleasure, but "quickly spread to avant-garde heterosexuals".
A series of interviews conducted in the late s revealed a wide spectrum of users. Inhaling nitrites relaxes smooth muscles throughout the body, including the sphincter muscles of the anus and the vagina. Smooth muscle surrounds the body's blood vessels and when relaxed causes these vessels to dilate resulting in an immediate increase in heart rate and blood flow throughout the body, producing a sensation of heat and excitement that lasts for a couple of minutes; when these vessels dilate, a further result is an immediate decrease in blood pressure.
Poppers contain. To the extent that poppers products contain alkyl nitrites, the following applies; the following table summarizes alkyl nitrite chemical and physical properties, including chemical structure: Poppers are inhaled. This is done through the nasal or oral cavities, any conditions which adversely affect the use of the respiratory system should be taken into account before administration commences.
Through the s, use by minors has been described as minimal, due to the ban on sales to minors by major manufacturers, because some jurisdictions regulate sales to minors by statute. A study commissioned by the United States Senate and conducted by the Department of Health and Human Services found that less than three per cent of the overall population had used poppers.
Alkyl nitrites interact with other vasodilators , such as sildenafil and tadalafil , to cause a serious decrease in blood pressure, which can cause fainting and low blood pressure leading to potential heart attack. Common side effects of popper abuse includes tachycardia , migraines and fainting The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy reports insignificant hazard associated with inhalation of alkyl nitrites, British governmental guidance on the relative harmfulness of alkyl nitrites places them among the less harmful of recreational drugs.
Swallowing poppers may cause cyanosis , unconsciousness and complications leading to death. Methemoglobinemia can occur. Accidental aspiration of amyl or butyl nitrites may cause lipoid pneumonia.
Isopropyl nitrite poppers may be a cause of maculopathy , as reported in France and the United Kingdom. Some studies have concluded that there may be increased risk for at least temporary retinal damage with habitual popper use in certain users. Foveal damage has been described, in six habitual users of poppers. In , optometrists and ophthalmologists reported having noticed an increase in vision loss in chronic popper users in the United Kingdom, associated with the substitution of isopropyl nitrite.
Modest, short-term reductions in immune function were observed in animal studies. A study examining men who have sex with men, who take recreational drugs, suggested poppers, when used in a pattern of recreational drug taking could be associated with increase in sexual risk-taking, it is illegal to sell poppers as inhalants in Australia , although some, including amyl nitrite, are sold in Nitric oxide Nitric oxide is a colorless gas with the formula NO.
It is one of the principal oxides of nitrogen. Nitric oxide is a free radical, i. Nitric oxide is a heteronuclear diatomic molecule, a historic class that drew researches which spawned early modern theories of chemical bonding. An important intermediate in chemical industry, nitric oxide forms in combustion systems and can be generated by lightning in thunderstorms. In mammals, including humans, nitric oxide is a signaling molecule in many physiological and pathological processes, it was proclaimed the " Molecule of the Year " in The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded for discovering nitric oxide's role as a cardiovascular signalling molecule.
Nitric oxide should not be confused with nitrous oxide, an anesthetic , or with nitrogen dioxide, a brown toxic gas and a major air pollutant. Upon condensing to a liquid, nitric oxide dimerizes to dinitrogen dioxide, but the association is weak and reversible.
Nitric oxide reacts with acetone and an alkoxide to a diazeniumdiolate or nitrosohydroxylamine and methyl acetate : This reaction, discovered around , remains of interest in nitric oxide prodrug research. Nitric oxide can react directly with sodium methoxide , forming sodium formate and nitrous oxide. Nitric oxide reacts with transition metals to give complexes called metal nitrosyls; the most common bonding mode of nitric oxide is the terminal linear type.
Alternatively, nitric oxide can serve as a one-electron pseudohalide. So-called NONOate compounds are used for nitric oxide generation. Nitric oxide concentration can be determined using a chemiluminescent reaction involving ozone.
The amount of light produced is proportional to the amount of nitric oxide in the sample. One of the few practical methods is spin trapping of nitric oxide with iron-dithiocarbamate complexes and subsequent detection of the mono-nitrosyl-iron complex with electron paramagnetic resonance.
A group of fluorescent dye indicators that are available in acetylated form for intracellular measurements exist. The most common compound is 4,5-diaminofluorescein. Symptoms of short-term nitrogen dioxide exposure include nausea and headache. Long-term effects could include impaired respiratory function.
NO is a gaseous signaling molecule, it is a key vertebrate biological messenger. Methemoglobin can not bind oxygen , it is bluish chocolate-brown in color. In human blood a trace amount of methemoglobin is produced spontaneously, but when present in excess the blood becomes abnormally dark bluish brown; the NADH-dependent enzyme methemoglobin reductase is responsible for converting methemoglobin back to hemoglobin. Alkyl nitrites are a source of nitric oxide , which signals for relaxation of the involuntary muscles.
Physical effects include decrease in blood pressure, headache, flushing of the face, increased heart rate, dizziness, and relaxation of involuntary muscles, especially the blood vessel walls and the internal and external anal sphincter. There are no withdrawal symptoms. Overdose symptoms include nausea , vomiting , hypotension , hypoventilation , shortness of breath , and fainting.
The effects set in very quickly, typically within a few seconds and disappear within a few minutes. Amyl nitrite may also intensify the experience of synesthesia.
Woodward and Doering argue that Rabe in proved that this compound will give quinine but do not repeat Rabe's work.
Alkyl nitrites are a source of nitric oxide, which signals for relaxation of the involuntary muscles. Methemoglobin can not bind oxygen , it is bluish chocolate-brown in color.