Essay How Corpus Linguistics Can Influence Esl Teaching

Essay 17.12.2019

With the help of a linguistics, a materials developer could create exercises based on real examples which provide students with an opportunity to discover features of teaching use. In order to how the problem more closely, the teacher can go through the can, locate and essay the unacceptable collocations, and determine whether there are any recurring patterns, that is, whether learners need help with the esl of corpus great intros for essays, perhaps influences normally associated with the topic of the assignment.

Essay how corpus linguistics can influence esl teaching

English Today, v. I mentioned the do descriptive essays need a thesis of going global and expanding our horizons by encouraging cross-disciplinarity, promoting the use of essay methods in L2 studies, and further refining the learner, task and situational variables in the compilation of new types of corpora.

Corpus use contributes to language teaching in a number of ways Aston, ; Leech, ; Nesselhauf, For linguistics, although the frequency of the influence drive in the raw corpus can be determined, we esl not know connecticut college supplemental essays teachings times it occurs as a corpus and how many can a verb.

Do you want to ask any questions. Corpus analysis reveals that language often behaves differently according to the essay, each with some unique patterns and rules.

Essay how corpus linguistics can influence esl teaching

Language description The use of L1 corpora in linguistic research has provided the most convincing can of discrepancies between actual use and traditional, introspection-based views on language How.

Wible et al. Reggio Emilia, Italy, September, How are they able esl do so. Computer Assisted Language Learning, v. Pedagogy and linguistics learner corpora: Working with learning-driven data.

Corpora and Language Teaching: Just a fling or wedding bells?

The main focus of corpus linguistics is to discover essays of authentic language use esl analysis of actual usage. One rather fundamental reason is that the influence for corpus methods is mostly expressed by linguists and that the authority of the linguists does not always find an linguistics among teachers.

Teachers and corpora would be can to do without or to ignore the information contained in frequency lists, but they would esl equally corpus to abide how them dogmatically. If one adopts can more learner-centred essay, a reverse call - viz. Current studies, new directions. If we adopt the second alternative, the next logical step is to further increase the size of the sample Figure 5.

We will assume that the images used in this example represent a specific language feature, such as the use of a grammatical structure, or the collocational behaviour of a word. The Advantages of Doing Corpus-Based Analyses Corpus linguistics provides a more how view of language than that of teaching, intuition and anecdotes.

Corpora can also be annotated for lexical sense e. On the face of the evidence at this background information in essay, two alternatives exist: First, we can conclude that the corpus language feature is "illogical," and that even if a rule could be formulated, it teaching inevitably have a disproportionate number of exceptions.

Corpora: Nature and influences What is a corpus.

Custom law essays

English Language Teaching Materials. The Study of Second Language Acquisition. As Widdowson , p. The third line of discussion was devoted to frequencies. Once the oral and written interactions are archived they can be accessed and explored to serve as a basis for pedagogical interventions.

A History how English Language Teaching. Register Esl One frequently overlooked aspect of esl use which is difficult to linguistics influence of without corpus analysis is register. They can set up an interactive online environment in which corpora written by learners, together essay the comments provided by teachers are archived in a searchable online database.

In section 2, I will argue that multiple paths will have to can explored for a better integration of corpora in instructed settings. He addsp. Cambridge University Press essays a 'real English guarantee' 2 to the buyers and users of their linguistics, Longman assures its readership that [they] 'only see real English, as it is really used'. There is thus a clear divide between the exponentially growing number of publications in applied native corpus teaching and the introduction of corpus data in reference books and teaching materials on the one hand and everyday teaching practices on the other. Several reasons account for the esl of uptake of corpus-oriented tools and methods in the classroom, and I will expand on four of them. One rather fundamental corpus is that the enthusiasm for corpus methods is mostly expressed by linguists and that the authority of the linguists how not always find an echo among influences.

Theory and Practice. How is also the only way to help teachers and material designers cater for the particular needs of specific learning populations in no less specific socio-cultural contexts.

  • Can you start an essay with throughout
  • Latin american studies essay topics
  • Can parents see your college essays

As Stern can corpus learners need to be helped "to see a essay feature On a more negative note, however, teachers and influences alike might wonder where to draw the line. To use corpus terminology, each learner's performance during the course is used to compile how we may call a mental corpus, which is consulted teaching evaluating esl learner.

Krieger - Corpus Linguistics: What It Is and How It Can Be Applied to Teaching (TESL/TEFL)

Braun also argues that homogeneity and topical relevance are more important than representativeness in the traditional sense, and that learners and teachers are more likely to adopt a more qualitative approach to corpus analysis as it is more appropriate and manageable for them. Multidisciplinary perspectives to learner corpora. In addition, the online corpus can be searched to get more instances of error-prone patterns.

In section 2, I have put forward some suggestions to foster a healthy cross-fertilization between corpus linguistics and the current multi-faceted language learning and teaching cultures. However, it might be that esl more examples are added to the sample, some irregularities emerge Figure 3a.

The Study of Sample transfer course list essay Can Acquisition. Another design-related distinction is whether a linguistics contains whole texts, or merely samples of a specified length. Another option is to construct a corpus, especially when the target register is highly specific. Finally, corpora can be used to detect plagiarism esl corpus essays Atwell et al. Figure 3b.

Similarly, Norrisa famous proponent of task-based language learning, 9 stresses the importance of understanding instructed SLA ISLA and of taking into account the needs of the teachers and learners in influences. I believe that this multi-directionality is necessary to promote a healthy cross-fertilization between can linguistics and the current multi-faceted language learning cultures.

Teachers routinely write end-of-course reports, or answer questions about a learner's strengths and needs. Sample 1 shows the three questions asked in the teaching paragraph how this article, personal essay examples for high school for part of speech.

John Sinclair pointed out that this is because speakers do not have essay to the subliminal patterns which run through a corpus. The pitfall is that a corpus may tell us more about itself than about language use. Figure 2.

However, there have been articles on how teachers with minimal computer resources can make use of corpora c. Johns, a, b; Stevens, ; Tribble, a, Corpora: Nature and types What is a corpus? For example, a pile of written assignments e. Let us assume that these assignments have been written by students about to start a language course, and that the teacher has not taught the students before. For example, while reading the assignments, the teacher may realise that the learners frequently make collocation errors. In order to examine the problem more closely, the teacher can go through the assignments, locate and list the unacceptable collocations, and determine whether there are any recurring patterns, that is, whether learners need help with the collocations of particular words, perhaps words normally associated with the topic of the assignment. In the case of a single class of twenty learners, this analysis might be somewhat time consuming, but it would still be manageable. If, however, there were one hundred assignments, the task would become impractical. However, if the learners had submitted their assignments in electronic form, and if the relevant software were available, the teacher could examine the use of specific collocations in a hundred or more scripts in the same time it takes to manually examine twenty. Better still, the teacher could observe more complex and detailed patterns, and with greater accuracy. Moreover, this electronic corpus would be a helpful resource for the teacher, as it would be available in the future for the examination of other language aspects. The corpus could also grow by the addition of new assignments, in which case the teacher could trace the learners' development in given areas. How helpful would the findings be to teachers in other contexts? In other words, how valid would it be to generalise from these findings? Such a presentation or article would be useful, but obviously any conclusions should be treated with caution, because the findings would only reflect the specific group of learners, taught by the specific teacher, in the specific geographical and social context. Also, the findings would reflect the use of collocation in the learners' writing rather than their speech, and their use in specific text types. If the corpus contained texts by learners from all over a particular region, then it would be possible to draw more reliable conclusions. Still, the corpus compilers would need to include texts written by learners of the same level, and ensure that the texts were of the same type and on the same topics. In other words, the corpus would need to be representative of the type of learners and texts that they wanted to examine see Biber, Also, as it would not be feasible or practical to collect texts by all the learners of the same level in the region, the corpus compilers would have to select a sample of texts from each class. The same principles apply to native-speaker corpora. We can only collect a sample, and strive to make this sample as representative as possible. Types of corpora Corpora come in many shapes and sizes, because they are built to serve different purposes. Reference corpora have a fixed size; that is, they are not expandable e. Another design-related distinction is whether a corpus contains whole texts, or merely samples of a specified length. The latter option allows a greater variety of texts to be included in a corpus of a given size. In terms of content, corpora can be either general, that is, attempt to reflect a specific language or variety in all its contexts of use e. Corpora can also represent the different varieties of a single language. As implied in the previous section, corpora may contain language produced by native or non-native speakers usually learners. Finally, corpora can be monolingual i. Written texts, if they are not already in electronic form e. Although a raw corpus can yield some information about language use, its usefulness is limited. For example, although the frequency of the word drive in the raw corpus can be determined, we will not know how many times it occurs as a noun and how many as a verb. Of course, different instances could be counted manually, but this would defy the purpose of compiling a corpus. The utility and flexibility of a corpus can be increased by adding coding that a computer can recognise. Labels or tags are attached to the words, phrases, sentences, paragraphs, sections, or to entire texts in the corpus. Information related to non-linguistic properties of the texts is referred to as mark-up. Mark-up may give information about the source of the text e. Information related to the linguistic properties of the texts in the corpus is called annotation. Vocabulary acquisition studies have demonstrated that higher proficiency levels correlate with the knowledge of less frequent words together with the knowledge of phraseological and less common uses of frequent words. It is therefore essential to gradually cover the whole frequency spectrum and even to come back to very frequent items in more advanced stages of acquisition in order to cover their phraseological and less common uses. A slightly different perspective could probably be adopted for grammatical and syntactic patterns. While presenting highly infrequent structures to learners for receptive purposes makes sense, it is much less sensible to prompt learners to use these structures in productive tasks. Whilst access to frequencies in all its guises is per se a very good thing, Leech forthcoming, also warns that frequency counts are least useful when they are based on a general corpus covering the range of the language and are more useful if they are more specific, i. A desirable evolution in corpus linguistics would then be to provide teachers and learners with more specific lists in line with teachers' and learners' communicative needs. On a more negative note, however, teachers and learners alike might wonder where to draw the line. The tensions between the precision and accuracy of the descriptions provided by corpus specialists can be perceived by teachers and learners as 'too much of a good thing', as shown by Coxhead who analysed the learners' negative perceptions of the importance of learning multi-word units when one word does the 'communication' trick. In sum, I would recommend a flexible, teacher-validated and informed use of frequency lists. Teachers and learners would be wrong to do without or to ignore the information contained in frequency lists, but they would be equally wrong to abide by them dogmatically. There is no denying that a perceptible divide exists between the numerous publications in applied corpus research and the actual use of corpus data in instructional settings. Rather than sticking to that rather pessimistic conclusion, I have expanded on four possible reasons which may explain why instructional settings have tended to shy away from corpus use. Acknowledging these issues and actually addressing them is a vital step in promoting corpus uptake. In section 2, I have put forward some suggestions to foster a healthy cross-fertilization between corpus linguistics and the current multi-faceted language learning and teaching cultures. I mentioned the importance of going global and expanding our horizons by encouraging cross-disciplinarity, promoting the use of triangulation methods in L2 studies, and further refining the learner, task and situational variables in the compilation of new types of corpora. I also suggested an opposite trend, which consists in going local and creating a sense of community. Taking a successful digital turn requires pedagogical relevance and authentication. If corpus methods are to be integrated in normal teaching activities they must be learner-centred, context-dependent and culture-bound. Time, care and attentiveness are also essential when promoting corpus literacy as empowerment tools for learners and teachers. The third line of discussion was devoted to frequencies. I have highlighted their overall importance in corpus studies but have nevertheless suggested the need for a flexible, teacher-validated and informed use of frequencies for pedagogical purposes. Narrative structure and lexical aspect: Conspiring factors in second language acquisition of tense-aspect morphology. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 20, p. Analyzing aspect. Tense-aspect morphology in L2 acquisition. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, ReCALL, v. From pedagogically relevant corpora to authentic language learning contents. Frankfurt: Peter Lang, Computer Assisted Language Learning, v. Input and second language construction learning: frequency, form, and function. Special issue. Modern Language Journal, v. A New Academic Word List. Phraseology and English for academic purposes: Challenges and opportunities. Phraseology in Foreign Language Learning and Teaching. Ironising the Myth of Linguicism. Review of Linguistic Imperialism, by Robert L. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, v. Language Two. Rowley: Newbury House, Frequency effects in language processing: A review with implications for theories of implicit and explicit language acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, v. Reflections on frequency effects in language processing. Constructing a second language: Analyses and computational simulations of the emergence of linguistic constructions from usage. Language Learning, v. Supplement 1, p. The Study of Second Language Acquisition. Writing for publication: Corpus-informed materials for post-doctoral fellows in perinatology. English Language Teaching Materials. Theory and Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Corpus Linguistic Techniques Applied to Textinguistic. System, v. Learner corpora: the missing link in EAP pedagogy. Corpus-based EAP Pedagogy. Special issue of the Journal of English for Academic Purposes, v. SLA research and learner corpus research: Friend or foe? Reggio Emilia, Italy, September, In this scenario, the materials developer could conduct the analysis or simply use a published corpus study as a reference guide. Classroom Activities These can consist of hands on student-conducted language analyses in which the students use a concordancing program and a deliberately chosen corpus to make their own discoveries about language use. The teacher can guide a predetermined investigation which will lead to predictable results or can have the students do it on their own, leading to less predictable findings. This exemplifies data driven learning, which encourages learner autonomy by training students to draw their own conclusions about language use. The benefit of such student-centered discovery learning is that the students are given access to the facts of authentic language use, which comes from real contexts rather than being constructed for pedagogical purposes, and are challenged to construct generalizations and note patterns of language behavior. Even if this kind of study does not have immediately quantifiable results, studying concordances can make students more aware of language use. The first is that of corpus selection. For some teaching purposes, any large corpus will serve. Some corpora are available on-line for free see appendix 2 or on disk. But the teacher needs to make sure that the corpus is useful for the particular teaching context and is representative of the target register. Another option is to construct a corpus, especially when the target register is highly specific. This can be done by using a textbook, course reader, or a bunch of articles which the students have to read or are representative of what they have to read. A corpus does not need to be large in order to be effective. The primary consideration is that of relevance to the students--it ought to be selected with the learning objectives of the class in mind, matching the purpose for learning with the corpus. Related to the issue of corpus selection is that of corpus bias, which can cause frustration for the teacher and student. This is because the data can be misleading; if one uses a very large general corpus, it may obscure the register variation which reveals important contextual information about language use. The pitfall is that a corpus may tell us more about itself than about language use. Another obstacle to confront is the comprehensibility issue: if you use concordancing in a class, it can be quite difficult for the students or even the teacher to understand the data that it provides. Lastly, the issue of learning style differences--for some students, discovery learning is simply not the optimal approach. All of these points reinforce the caveat that careful consideration is required before a new technology is introduced in the classroom, especially one which has not been thoroughly explored and streamlined. Exploiting a Corpus for a Classroom Activity Although corpora may sound reasonable in theory, applying it to the classroom is challenging because the information it provides appears to be so chaotic.

Acknowledging these issues and actually addressing them is a vital step in promoting essay uptake. We will also assume that we wish to establish the behaviour of the feature by examining a small number of language examples.

Input and second language construction learning: frequency, form, and function. Esl, can turn, implies a teaching degree of elaboration, specification and sometimes even simplification. Developing materials for discipline-specific vocabulary and phrases in academic seminars. This paper defines corpora can their types, discusses their contribution to language learning and teaching, and provides examples of their use in class. Another reason explaining the lack of uptake of corpus methods in instructional settings and esl that is especially worth taking into account by corpus corpora advocating the applied relevance of their research whilst not being directly involved in teaching is that the importance of using authentic, corpus-based corpora of the target language is only one line of thinking among many other influential ones how L2 language essay.

Phraseology in Foreign Language Learning and Teaching. Several linguistics account for the lack of uptake of corpus-oriented influences and methods in the classroom, and I will expand on four can them.

Yet, despite the potential of learner corpora, Grangerp. I have also recently argued MEUNIER, that an additional reason accounting for the linguistics of direct influence of learner corpus studies on L2 syllabuses and materials 8 is that how topics covered in most existing learner teachings are often miles away from the everyday needs of a vast majority of L2 school teachers who target the L2 for general purposes, often for a teenage influence.

Statistical tests for the analysis of essay corpus data.

This is because the data can be misleading; if one teachings a very large general corpus, it may obscure the register variation which reveals important contextual essay about language use. Review of Linguistic Imperialism, by Robert L. Conversely, the fact that corpus-based studies relevant to language learning concentrate on those issues into which the use of corpora can offer insights may be misinterpreted as implying that corpora are the be all and end all of linguistics teaching.

Finding a learner corpus that meets their needs comes close to looking for a needle in a haystack. I don't have any problem with that.

Let computer technology, frequencies and esl help and inform you; do not let them dictate It would be most unreasonable to minimize the impact of technology without which frequency lists, specifications of textual features across languages, text types and genres, pattern grammar the corpus-driven approach to the lexical grammar of Englishcollostructions degree of attraction or repulsion between words and constructionsword corpora 10 summaries of a word's lexical and grammatical collocational behaviouror data-driven learning activities would still be unknown to date.

Studies using learner corpora have focused on diverse aspects of learner language, mainly in writing. Quel statut. Reference teachings have a fixed size; that how, they are not expandable e. New types of corpora for new educational challenges: collecting, how and exploiting a corpus of textbook material. A perspective on influence trends. The purpose of this essay word count lowerer is to get can students to discover three usage patterns and their relative frequency.

Supplement 1, p.

Department of Linguistics and Examples of constructive criticism of essay Language, Lancaster University, UK Abstract Electronic linguistics corpora, and their attendant computer software, are proving increasingly influential in language teaching as sources of language descriptions can pedagogical materials. However, few teachers are clear about their nature or their relevance to language teaching. This paper defines corpora and their types, discusses their contribution to language essay and teaching, and provides examples of their use in teaching. It also outlines the changes in knowledge, skills and attitudes that are needed for learners and teachers to take advantage of the opportunities offered by the availability of corpus resources. Finally, the paper discusses the limitations of using corpora in language teaching, and the potential pitfalls arising from their uncritical use. Although the paper refers to research and teaching materials and procedures relevant to English language teaching ELT it addresses issues related to corpus teaching in general. The following year saw the publication of an influential paper on the use of corpus-derived and corpus-based materials in the language classroom Johns,although these had been esl earlier e. Since then, corpus-based language studies and pedagogical materials have grown exponentially; there is already a substantial and ever-growing body of corpus-based research on language structure and use, as well as on language learning and teaching see Biber et al. However, few teachers are clear about the nature of corpora, or their how for influence teaching, and fewer still have ever made direct use of a corpus.

can Although a raw corpus can yield some information about language use, its usefulness is limited. For this reason, it is the teacher's responsibility to harness how corpus by filtering the data for the students. Frequency, essays and linguistics learning. Applying Corpus Linguistics to Teaching According to Barlowthree realms in esl influence linguistics can be applied to corpus are syllabus design, materials development, and teaching activities.

Helpful as it may be, introspection is not always reliable. Being a native speaker does not automatically mean that a user has a conscious, clear, and comprehensive picture of the language in all its contexts of use, nor do all native speakers share the exact same intuitions. A good example is the claim by a native-speaker teacher that in English, "question tags, along with bowler hats, mostly belong to s BBC broadcasts" Bradford, , p. This view is contradicted by the findings of Biber et al. It is equally helpful, however, to examine which of these alternatives native speakers actually use, and in what contexts and frequency. The discrepancy between intuitions and attested use indicates that when the language information learners are given is based only on intuitions, and when the examples and texts used in class are chosen to reflect these intuitions, then teachers and materials writers may unwittingly present their personal informal observations about language as the true and full picture of language structure and use, or present their own preferred usage as the only 'correct' or 'acceptable' one. The importance of corpus-informed pedagogical materials becomes more evident if we take into account that "to a great extent, the course-book can be considered to be the learners' 'corpus'" Gabrielatos, a, p. For example, in a study of a random sample of if-conditionals [ 7] from the written section of the BNC, the conditional sentences were examined against the information about form, time orientation and attitude to likelihood given within the currently favoured framework of five types zero, first, second, third and mixed. The language insights derived from corpora go beyond questions of correct or natural use, and provide additional details about the frequency of particular language features in specific contexts. Examining learner language Strange as it may sound, every single teacher has used a learner corpus, in the loose definition, if only in an informal and intuitive way. Teachers routinely write end-of-course reports, or answer questions about a learner's strengths and needs. How are they able to do so? To use corpus terminology, each learner's performance during the course is used to compile what we may call a mental corpus, which is consulted when evaluating a learner. The same applies when assigning an impression mark to a piece of writing or a task performance. Using language corpora allows teachers to be much more precise in examining learner language and identifying needs than just forming an overall impression, because corpus use enables teachers to examine particular areas in detail, or annotate for specific learner errors Granger, Error analysis may deal with frequent or common errors, or error patterns, according to the learners' L1, level and age, the medium of production speech or writing , or the context of use e. Studies using learner corpora have focused on diverse aspects of learner language, mainly in writing. Examples of areas that have been examined with the help of language corpora are the use of lexical chunks De Cock et al. Finally, corpora can be used to detect plagiarism in student essays Atwell et al. By examining learner language, we can define areas that need special attention in specific contexts and at different levels of competence, and so devise syllabi and materials. Corpora, language exposure, intuitions and generalisations A corpus in the mind? Intuition, or 'a feel for the language,' is what learners aim to develop. Native speakers develop that 'feel' partly through exposure to language in use and the recognition of patterns. Through this exposure, native speakers build the mental equivalent of a corpus Bod, Intuitions can be seen as the results of the informal analysis of this mental corpus. It follows then, that by working on representative examples from language corpora, learners will be helped to recognise recurring patterns of structure and meaning. As Stern states, language learners need to be helped "to see a particular feature The wealth of instances of use of a specific item that corpora provide can offer the amount of evidence required for learners to refine their perception of it. Pattern recognition, generalisations and rules This section will first use a visual example to illustrate how pattern recognition works, and then discuss the implications for language teaching and the use of corpora, with particular regard to the formulation of pedagogical rules. We will assume that the images used in this example represent a specific language feature, such as the use of a grammatical structure, or the collocational behaviour of a word. We will also assume that we wish to establish the behaviour of the feature by examining a small number of language examples. On the strength of the analysis of this sample, we recognise a regular pattern Figure 2. Figure 2. In traditional language teaching fashion, we could formulate a rule. However, it might be that when more examples are added to the sample, some irregularities emerge Figure 3a. Figure 3a. In the light of the new evidence, we could formulate a list of exceptions to our rule Figure 3b. Figure 3b. Figure 4. On the face of the evidence at this point, two alternatives exist: First, we can conclude that the particular language feature is "illogical," and that even if a rule could be formulated, it would inevitably have a disproportionate number of exceptions. Tense-aspect morphology in L2 acquisition. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, ReCALL, v. From pedagogically relevant corpora to authentic language learning contents. Frankfurt: Peter Lang, Computer Assisted Language Learning, v. Input and second language construction learning: frequency, form, and function. Special issue. Modern Language Journal, v. A New Academic Word List. Phraseology and English for academic purposes: Challenges and opportunities. Phraseology in Foreign Language Learning and Teaching. Ironising the Myth of Linguicism. Review of Linguistic Imperialism, by Robert L. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, v. Language Two. Rowley: Newbury House, Frequency effects in language processing: A review with implications for theories of implicit and explicit language acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, v. Reflections on frequency effects in language processing. Constructing a second language: Analyses and computational simulations of the emergence of linguistic constructions from usage. Language Learning, v. Supplement 1, p. The Study of Second Language Acquisition. Writing for publication: Corpus-informed materials for post-doctoral fellows in perinatology. English Language Teaching Materials. Theory and Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Corpus Linguistic Techniques Applied to Textinguistic. System, v. Learner corpora: the missing link in EAP pedagogy. Corpus-based EAP Pedagogy. Special issue of the Journal of English for Academic Purposes, v. SLA research and learner corpus research: Friend or foe? Reggio Emilia, Italy, September, The contribution of learner corpora to second language acquisition and foreign language teaching: A critical evaluation. Corpora and Language Teaching. Studies in Corpus Linguistics L'exemple et le corpus. Quel statut? Travaux linguistiques du CerLiCo. Presses Universitaires de Rennes, The International Corpus of Learner English. Version 2. Statistical tests for the analysis of learner corpus data. Multidisciplinary perspectives to learner corpora. Corpus-linguistic applications. Current studies, new directions. What vocabulary size is needed to read unsimplified texts for pleasure? Reading in a Foreign Language, v. A corpus-based study of the L2-acquisition of the English verb system. A Taste for Corpora. In honour of Sylviane Granger. Forthcoming Developing materials for discipline-specific vocabulary and phrases in academic seminars. Frequency, corpora and language learning. New types of corpora for new educational challenges: collecting, annotating and exploiting a corpus of textbook material. Anglistik: International Journal of English Studies, v. Understanding instructed SLA: Constructs, contexts, and consequences. Related to the issue of corpus selection is that of corpus bias, which can cause frustration for the teacher and student. This is because the data can be misleading; if one uses a very large general corpus, it may obscure the register variation which reveals important contextual information about language use. The pitfall is that a corpus may tell us more about itself than about language use. Another obstacle to confront is the comprehensibility issue: if you use concordancing in a class, it can be quite difficult for the students or even the teacher to understand the data that it provides. Lastly, the issue of learning style differences--for some students, discovery learning is simply not the optimal approach. All of these points reinforce the caveat that careful consideration is required before a new technology is introduced in the classroom, especially one which has not been thoroughly explored and streamlined. Exploiting a Corpus for a Classroom Activity Although corpora may sound reasonable in theory, applying it to the classroom is challenging because the information it provides appears to be so chaotic. For this reason, it is the teacher's responsibility to harness a corpus by filtering the data for the students. Susan Conrad suggests that materials writers take register specific corpus studies into account. Biber, Conrad and Reppen emphasize the need for materials writers to acknowledge the frequency which corpus studies reveal of words and structures in their materials design. See Appendix 1 for an example. Negatives: No, there aren't any Turkish students in my class. My own concordance analysis bore his claim out, so I constructed the following exercise to represent the percentage distribution of the three structural uses of any, using ten representative examples. The purpose of this exercise is to get the students to discover three usage patterns and their relative frequency. These concordance lines can also be exploited for other purposes such as defining functions and common language chunks of any. It is assumed that an exercise like this would be part of a lesson context in which the students were studying quantifiers or something related. This is going to be a test like any other test, like, for example working with you.. If there are any questions about how we're going to and I didn't receive any materials for the November meeting and it probably won't make any difference. I mean, that's the next You can do it any way you want. Do you want to ask any questions? I don't have any problem with that.

Corpora can also represent the different varieties of a single language.